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Normal liver without any disease

Hepatitis C

Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. Toxins, certain drugs, some diseases, heavy alcohol use, and bacterial and viral infections can all cause hepatitis. Hepatitis is also the name of a family of viral infections that affect the liver; the most common types in the United States are hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. Chronic hepatitis C is a serious disease than can result in long-term health problems, or even death.


Hepatitis C is a contagious liver disease that results from infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). it can range in severity from a mild illness lasting a few weeks to a serious, lifelong illness. There are 6 genotype of in general 6 type of HCV virus with 50 subtypes. Most common genotypes are genotype 1,2, and 3. Type 1 is the most common in the US.


There are several ways to transmit HCV which are almost same as HIV and HBV. The basic of transmission is to transmit the infected body fluid from one person to a healthy person. The virulence or capacity of the virus to replicate itself is one of the highest among the viruses infecting humans. A very small number of virus load can result in full fulminant infection. Therefore, in hepatitis C a single exposure to the virus can lead to full blown infection. This can happen just a few days after the exposure or remain silent for decades before it shows up any complications or signs of infection. There are several examples listed below.

Sexual intercourse including vaginal, oral or anal.

Current or former injection drug users, Recipients of clotting factor concentrates made before 1987, when more advanced methods for manufacturing those products were developed.

Recipients of blood transfusions or solid organ transplants before July 1992, when better testing of blood donors became available

Chronic hemodialysis patients, Persons with known exposures to HCV, such as healthcare workers after needle sticks involving HCV-positive blood or splash of infected blood or body fluid to mucous membranes like eyes or mouth or any cut surface in skin.

recipients of blood or organs from a donor who tested HCV-positive persons with HIV infection, Children born to HCV-positive mothers. Body piercing and tattoo. Sharing personal items as razors and toothbrush.

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